Arkansas State University is an interdependent learning community consisting of students, faculty and staff. Just as any community has a culture, along with written and unwritten "expectations" for conduct, we too have a culture and associated expectations for behavior. The community's expectation is that conduct is marked by integrity. Any student who chooses to enroll at the university also chooses to become part of this community and constructively contribute to its culture. This choice is an obligation to conduct oneself in such a way as to facilitate the mission of the community, which is to "...enhance intellectual life and enrich lives..."
The following principles are part of the collective expectation of the members of this community relative to personal conduct.
Ethical Behavior — The pursuit of a higher education is a privilege. Associated with that privilege is an obligation to aspire to a set of principles and values that demonstrate a commitment to fairness, honesty, empathy and achievement.
Morality — Members of a learning community commit to the ideals of appropriate human conduct. This lifestyle seeks to harm no one and attempts to be a positive contributor in every interaction.
Respect — Every member of this community should seek to gain and demonstrate respect. Members should hold one another in high regard. Each individual should conduct himself or herself in a manner worthy of that regard, which is gained by decent and correct behavior.
The learning community at Arkansas State University does not intend to be prescriptive regarding the personal beliefs and value systems of its members. However, this community does believe that it has a right to expect its members to demonstrate personal responsibility and integrity in word and deed.
The university has jurisdiction over any student or student organization alleged to have violated the Standards of Student Conduct on campus or off campus. For the purpose of the student conduct process, a “student” is defined as any person who is admitted, enrolled or registered for study at Arkansas State University for any academic period. Persons who are not officially enrolled for a particular term but who have a continuing student relationship with, or an educational interest in, Arkansas State University are considered “students”. A person shall also be considered a student during any period while the student is under suspension from the institution or when the person is attending or participating in any activity preparatory to the beginning of the academic year including, but not limited to, fraternity or sorority recruitment, orientation, placement testing, and residence hall check-in.
The university reserves the right to take necessary and appropriate action to protect the safety and well-being of the campus community and its members.
Interim Administrative Action
The Vice Chancellor for Student Affairs, or his/her designee, may defer procedural due process and enforce an interim action if necessary to maintain safety or order; including but not limited to, removal from housing or conduct suspension. The Vice Chancellor for Academic Affairs, or her/his designee, may defer procedural due process and remove a student from a class to maintain order. Any student who has had interim action taken against him/her will be afforded a timely resolution for the case generally holding the hearing within 5 business days.
Student Contact Information
All students are responsible for maintaining their current address, email address and phone number with the Office of the Registrar. It is also the student’s responsibility to frequently monitor campus e-mail and the university web site, as these electronic means of communication are the university’s most effective and efficient ways to disseminate important information to the campus community. Campus e-mail is the primary means of communication from the Office of Student Conduct; appearance notifications, hearing notifications and decision notifications will be sent to the student’s A-State email address.
Modifying the Standards of Student Conduct
The university reserves the right to amend the Standards of Student Conduct at any time. Every effort will be made to communicate any changes made to the university community at least ten days prior to policy change, except at the start of the academic year. The Standards of Student Conduct will be updated each summer and the new version will be available in the Student Handbook for that academic year.
The Vice Chancellor for Student Affairs or his/her designee is the final authority in defining and interpreting the Non-Academic Standards of Student Conduct and conduct procedures. The Vice Chancellor for Academic Affairs and Research or his/her designee is the final authority in defining and interpreting the Academic Standards of Student Conduct.
Standards of Student Conduct
When the conduct of any member falls outside the bounds of acceptable behavior, that member can expect the community of Arkansas State University to call such conduct into question. The university reserves the right to discipline students or student organizations for inappropriate actions that occur on or off the campus to secure compliance with the University Standards of Student Conduct. Students are expected to comply with all university policies and procedures, including University Housing Regulations and the Standards of Student Conduct. Students failing to maintain these Standards may be asked to leave the academic community.
Standards of Student Conduct are divided into two categories: Non-Academic Misconduct and Academic Misconduct. The following list of prohibited behavior is not exclusive and serves only as examples of specific actions constituting Non-academic Misconduct. The Academic Misconduct list can be found in the Student Handbook under Academic Rights and Responsibilities.
Non-Academic Misconduct Standards of Student Conduct
A student commits a violation of the Non-Academic Standards of Student Conduct they aid another student in the commission of a violation of the Non-Academic Standards of Student Conduct or is present or fails to leave immediately a situation where a violation is occurring.
- Sale, possession, manufacturing, distribution, consumption, or evidence of consumption of alcoholic beverages, on university property or at university sponsored events, except as allowed by Institutional and System policy.
- Use by, possession of or distribution to person(s) under twenty-one (21) years of age of any alcoholic beverage.
- Public intoxication or impairment that can be attributed to the use of alcohol.
- Activities or promotions that encourage excessive and/or rapid consumption of alcoholic beverages, including the use of common containers.
- The possession and/or use of drinking paraphernalia or products that promote the abuse of alcohol and/or put the user in a position to consume alcohol irresponsibly. This includes but is not limited to funnels, taps, and beer pong tables.
- Bicycles, Skateboards, Skates
Potentially dangerous or damaging use to self, property or others, of skateboards, bicycles, scooters, skates, hover boards, self-balancing scooters, battery powered two-wheeled scooters, or other wheeled forms of transportation. The use of skateboards and hover boards is permitted only on sidewalks and parking lots unless otherwise posted. No wheeled form of transportation covered in this policy is permitted in the parking garage. Bicycles must be parked in bike racks and other designated areas. Hover boards may not be charged in any Arkansas State building or other campus facility.
- Computer Misuse
Misuse, abuse, and unauthorized use of computing resources, and/or use of computing resources for unauthorized purposes such as, but not limited to, destroying, modifying, accessing, or copying programs, records, or data belonging to the university or another user without permission. This includes peer to peer distribution of copyrighted materials and/or illegal downloading of copyrighted materials, which are also violations of Federal Law.
- Damage to Property
Damaging or destroying university property or the property of others, or actions that have the potential for such damage or destruction. Conduct which threatens to damage, or creates hazardous conditions.
- Disruption of University Business
Engaging in, leading or inciting others to materially and substantially disrupt or obstruct teaching, research, administration or other university functions, operations or activities including, but not limited to, the blocking of ingress or egress to the university’s physical facilities, tampering with public utilities, or prevention of freedom of movement or expression by members of the university community.
- Disruptive Conduct
Disrupting the regular or normal functions of the Arkansas State University community, including behavior which breaches the peace, limits the safety or violates the rights of others.
- Use, manufacturing, distribution, sale or illegal possession of any quantity, whether usable or not, of any drug, narcotic or controlled substance without a valid medical prescription under current medical supervision.
- Impairment that can be attributed to the use of any drug, narcotic or controlled substance.
- Possession and/or use of drug paraphernalia which includes objects used, primarily intended for use or designed for use in ingesting, inhaling, or otherwise introducing any drug, narcotic or controlled substance into the human body including, but not limited to, pipes, water pipes, bongs, hookahs, roach clips and vials without valid medical prescription.
- Misuse or abuse of prescription drugs.
- Misuse or abuse of any chemical substance.
- Endangering Conduct
Physical abuse, verbal abuse, threats, intimidation, coercion and/or other conduct which threatens or endangers the health or safety of self or others or violates a legal or institutional protective/no contact order.
- Failure to Comply
Failure to comply with directions, verbal, written, or electronic of university officials, or those appointed to act on behalf of the university in the performance of their duties.
- False Accusations
- Knowingly, intentionally, or recklessly making false accusations of inappropriate behavior against another individual.
- Providing false or falsified information with intent of harming another university community member.
- Attempting to intimidate witnesses necessary to conflict resolutions pending with the university.
- Altering or destroying information necessary to conflict resolutions pending with the university.
- False or Fraudulent Information
- Furnishing false information to a university official.
- Forgery, alteration, taking possession of or the unauthorized use of University documents, records, keys or identification without the consent or authorization of the appropriate University Official.
- Use, manufacturing, distribution, sale, or possession of false identification.
- Altering, defacing, or falsifying IDs, or in any way conspiring to obtain false identification.
- Fire/Emergency Threat
- Starting a fire or creating a fire hazard, including false alarms by setting off the fire alarm system, making a bomb threat or creating a false emergency of any kind.
- Tampering with, misusing or damaging fire extinguishers, sprinkler heads, alarms or other safety equipment.
Gambling in residence halls or on or about university property without legal permit as an authorized state organization and approval from the Office of Student Conduct.
- Guest Responsibility
- Failure to inform guests, both student and non-student, of university policies. Guests are any person not assigned to a specific building, suite or apartment if the incident occurs in university owned housing or any person not associated with the university community that reasonably appears to be with a student.
- Students are responsible for the conduct of their guests on or in university property and at functions sponsored by the university or any recognized university organization.
Any form of conduct (written, verbal, physical, graphic, or electronic) that is 1) unwanted; 2) directed towards an individual or group of people; and 3) so severe, pervasive, and objectively offensive that a reasonable person with the same characteristics of the of the victim would be adversely affected to a degree that interferes with an individual's education or employment performance or creates an intimidating, hostile, or offensive university environment.
Any mental or physical requirement, request or obligation placed upon any person that could intentionally or unintentionally cause discomfort, pain, fright, disgrace, injury or which is personally degrading for the purpose of initiation into, admission into, affiliation with, or as a condition of continued membership in, a group or organization. A person’s expressed or implied consent to hazing does not negate the above standards.
- Lewd, Obscene or Indecent Behavior
Any conduct that is offensive to accepted standards of decency, including attire that exposes undergarments or does not provide adequate coverage of the body.
Littering, including the improper disposal of tobacco products and trash.
- Non-recognized Organizations
Non-recognized and/or unregistered student groups attempting to function on the campus or in the name of Arkansas State University. Acting as an organization or representing oneself as a member of an organization when that organization has been removed from campus.
- Objects Dropped or Thrown
Throwing objects or causing an object to fall from buildings or other elevated areas when such throwing or dropping creates a risk of personal injury or property damage.
- Recording Ethics
Viewing, transmitting, recording, filming, photographing, producing or creating a digital electronic file of the image or voice of another person, including classroom settings, without their knowledge, or consent.
- Sexual Harassment
Unwelcome gender-based verbal and physical conduct that is severe, persistent or pervasive and occurs when:
- Submission to, or toleration of, such conduct is made either explicitly or implicitly as a condition of instruction, employment, or participation in other university activities;
- Submission to, or rejection of, such conduct is used as the basis for employment or education decisions affecting the individual;
- Such conduct has the purpose or effect of unreasonably interfering with an individual’s education or work performance or creating an intimidating, hostile or offensive university environment.
- Sexual Misconduct
Sexual conduct without consent or sexual conduct that occurs after consent has been withdrawn. To constitute sexual misconduct, the sexual conduct must meet one of the following criteria:
- the sexual conduct is not consensual;
- the sexual conduct includes force, threat(s) or intimidation;
- the sexual conduct occurs when the victim is mentally or physically impaired, such as when under the influence of alcohol or other drugs or when the victim is a minor.
Use of tobacco is not permitted on university property. This includes, but is not limited to, the use all lighted tobacco and plant products including cigarettes, cigars, and pipes, smokeless tobacco, and vaping devices including e-cigarettes.
- Solicitation Activities
Solicitation not in accordance with federal, state or local laws or without the permission as outlined in the Fundraising (Solicitation) Policy found in the Student Handbook.
- Student I.D. Cards
- Failure to carry a valid Arkansas State University I.D. card at all times when on university property or at university sponsored events, except when properly checked into a residence hall.
- Allowing others to use one’s I.D. card for access to a building, cafeteria, or parking lot or for use at any establishment that accepts the I.D Card for payment.
- Transferring and or duplicating university I.D. cards.
- Failure to provide I.D. cards upon request to any individual acting on behalf of the university in the performance of their official duties.
Theft of any kind including but not limited to; attempted theft, possession, sale or barter of, seizing or concealing property of another person without their permission.
- Unauthorized Use
- Unauthorized or illegal entry into a building, classroom, office, room, vehicle, or residence hall.
- Unauthorized use or possession of University property.
- Use or possession of any University key without proper authorization including duplication of any University key.
- Violation of Law
Arrest or citation for violation(s) of local, state, or federal law, and/or conduct that adversely affects the student’s suitability as a member of the university community.
- Violations of Other University Regulations
Violations of any university rule or regulations outside the Standards of Student Conduct.
To the fullest extent allowed by law, the use, possession or storage of weapons. Weapons include, but are not limited to, firearms, explosive devices, hazardous chemicals (other than pocket-sized sprays used for personal protection), knives with blades longer than four inches, numb chucks, brass knuckles, tasers or other electrical stun devices, bows or cross bows, arrows, objects that propel projectiles, replicas of weapons (including water or toy guns), or any device or substance designed to or used to inflict a wound, cause injury, or incapacitate.
Residence Life Standards of Student Conduct
The following list of prohibited behavior is not exclusive and serves only as examples of specific actions constituting violations of the Residence Life Standards of Student Conduct. Information included in this section should clarify or expand upon the Standards of Student Conduct.
Students are responsible for all violations occurring in their residence. If a violation occurs in a common space and a resident knows or should have known about the violation and has not reported to their Resident Assistant, they will be held accountable for that violation.
- Accepting a New Roommate
If a student is residing in a double occupancy room without a roommate and has not paid for private room occupancy, the vacant side of the room must remain clean and empty in anticipation of a new roommate. A new roommate may be assigned to the room at any time.
Sale, possession, manufacturing, distribution, consumption, or evidence of consumption of alcoholic beverages is prohibited in university owned housing.
- Abandoned Property
All items brought into the space by the resident or someone admitted into the space by the resident must be removed from a residence upon check out. If a student fails to properly check out or items are left past check out, the Department of Residence Life shall declare them abandoned and they will be held for 30 business days and then discarded. The University shall not be liable for any damage to or loss of such property that occurs during the course of such removal, storage, delivery or disposal. There is a fee for removal of and storage of abandoned items that is assessed to a student’s university account.
- Active Sports
Participation in active sports within University-owned housing is prohibited. Outdoor basketball goals are not permitted in parking lots or in/on the Village Houses and Village Apartments.
- Appliance Usage
Students may not have the following appliances in their residence:
- halogen lamps
- sun lamps
- tanning beds
- heating coils
- camp stoves
- broilers unless provided by Residence Life
- window air conditioners except those approved and installed by Residence Life in the Village Houses
- lava lamps
- microwave ovens more than 1,000 watts
- refrigerators more than 2.0 running amps or larger than 4.5 cubic feet
- toasters/toaster ovens
- deep fryers
- and items with exposed heating elements including but not limited to: space heaters, emersion heaters, any open-faced or heating appliances.
Approved appliances include:
- University provided appliances
- microwave ovens less than or equivalent to 1,000 watts
- refrigerators less than or equivalent to 2.0 running amps and no larger than 4.5 cubic feet,
- UL approved sealed unit coffee makers
- George Foreman®-type grills
- popcorn poppers
- desk lamps
- electric blankets
- electric kettles
- DVD/Blu-ray players
- Gaming systems
- NuWave Precision Cooktops
- Scentsy© type wax warmers
The above approved appliances are permitted as long as the equipment is kept in safe operating condition and unless their energy use exceeds the capacity of the system.
No outside antennas of any type are permitted. It is the student’s responsibility to receive permission from their Graduate Hall Director or Area Coordinator for any appliances not on the approved list.
- Bed Requirements
Beds provided by A-State must remain intact and in the assigned residence hall bedroom at all times in all First Year Residence Halls (Arkansas, University, Kays), Honors LLC, ROTC LLC, STEM Den, Red Wolf Den, and Collegiate Park. North Park Quads beds provided by A-State must be present and assembled at check out. If a student in NPQ removes their bed from the room or stores it in another person’s assigned space they are responsible for all costs of damages incurred due to dis/reassembly or relocation. The cost of any assigned bed not present at check-out will be assessed to the student it was originally assigned. Beds may never be placed in or taken from unassigned rooms. Beds may be raised using risers that have a minimum of 300lb weight limit per riser. Beds may not be lofted unless the loft is provided by Residence Life.
Bicycles and other wheeled transportation can only be stored in a residence if all roommates consent. If a bicycle is stored in a residence it may not block any entrance or fire escape route. Bicycles can be stored in the provided bicycle racks outside of Arkansas Hall, Kays Hall, University Hall, Red Wolf Den, Northpark Quads, STEM Den LLC, Honors LLC, and ROTC LLC. There is additional bicycle storage built in to stairwells in Northpark Quads and a designated space in Honors 4. Please refer to the Standards of Student Conduct in regards to bicycle parking or storage elsewhere on campus.
- Computer Network Devices
The use of individual wireless routers is prohibited on the A-State network. The use of these routers degrades the University network and causes a disruption to other students. The “Appropriate Use of Information and Technology Resources” policies can be found at http://www.astate.edu/dotAsset/42c06ed4-f1aa-43f2-88f3-b84cc32cb4b6.pdf.
This policy also prohibits any activity that would overload the network, or degrade network services.
- Contact Paper
Contact paper may not be used on any permanent surface or university owned furnishings unless it is serving as drawer liner.
Cooking is only permitted in kitchens or when a student is using an approved appliance. Residents are responsible for ensuring that proper sanitation, ventilation and fire safety precautions are taken. If students are using the hall kitchen, they must clean up the area following use.
- Courtesy Hours
Students and guests must adhere to a courteous level of sound at all times.
The following decorations are prohibited:
- Decorations hindering the use or restricting access to hallways, doorways, stairs, corridors, or fire related equipment.
- Cardboard, aluminum foil, cellophane, flags or other items used as window coverings, excluding cloth curtains.
- Curtains may only be hung using tension rods, except in the Village Houses and Village Apartments.
- Displaying alcohol/drug signs, or other related alcohol/drug memorabilia so they are visible from outside a student residence (such as in windows or on doors).
- Displaying alcohol containers of any kind.
- Attaching items to or tampering with light fixtures, ceiling tiles, fire safety equipment or exit signs.
- Hanging or displaying any item within 5 feet of a sprinkler spout.
- Using nails or other items that will puncture a wall. This clause is not applicable in the Village Houses and Village Apartments.
- Only adhesive putty, plastic adhesive hooks and magnets may be used to affix decorations. No tape may be used on walls or doors. This clause is not applicable in the Village Houses and Village Apartments.
- Using a cut/live evergreen tree as decoration such as a Christmas or Holiday Tree.
- Painting or permanently altering a room in any way.
- Displaying electric/neon signs.
- Mounting televisions to the wall.
- Displaying material that is generally accepted as offensive or that is biased against any person or groups so it is visible from outside a student residence (such as in windows or on doors).
- Nothing can be mounted or hung from the ceiling.
- No more than 30% of the wall/ceiling space may be covered. No paper may be hung within 1 foot of an electrical outlet.
- Elevator Operations
Students and guests may not interfere with the normal operation of an elevator.
- Entrance to Buildings
- Exterior building doors may not be propped or forced open (including attempting to force them open).
- No one may enter a side door unless authorized by an appropriate Residence Life staff member or having appropriate card access.
- When entering a building with a front desk, you must provide proof of residency upon request from the desk assistant or check in at their request.
- Guest Escort Policy
All guests must be escorted by their hosts in a public area. A specific host must be immediately present in public areas and residences. A guest is anyone not assigned to the specific building, suite or apartment.
- Guest Visitation
- Students may not host a guest without permission from the resident’s roommate(s) prior to the guest’s arrival.
- In buildings that require guest registration, all guests must be properly checked in at the front desk.
- In buildings that require guest registration, visitation hours are restricted to 11 a.m. to midnight Sunday through Thursday and 11 a.m. to 3 a.m. Friday and Saturday. Visitation in all other residences is determined by the unit. The visitation hours and regulations for each building are located on page 49 of the Student Handbook.
- No more than two guests are allowed per resident unless otherwise permitted by the GHD, except in the Village.
In 24 hour visitation halls, including the Village, guests may stay no more than two consecutive nights and a guest may not stay more than 5 nights collectively in any University residence (hall, apartment, house, etc.) space per month.
- Guest Visitation – Under 18
All visitors must be a minimum of 18 years of age and have a valid photo ID to be allowed guest privileges. Exceptions to this are:
- Underage guests who are accompanied by their parent(s) or guardian(s) may visit from 11 am to midnight. For emergency situations, the appropriate Area Coordinator may allow extended visitation.
- In some circumstances, underage guests may stay overnight if proper authorization is given. This must occur within the normal overnight guest policy for the building where the visitation will occur. You must contact the appropriate Area Coordinator in advance of the visit to secure permission for this. Written and notarized parental (guardian) permission is required.
- Members of a resident’s immediate family who are not 18 may visit from 11 am to midnight. Residents wishing to have a sibling stay overnight should contact their Area Coordinator 1 week in advance to request permission. Written and notarized parental (guardian) permission is required.
- Residents wishing to have their children visit the residence halls outside of 11 am to midnight should consult with their Area Coordinator. Consistent overnight visits are not permitted.
- Roommate permission must be obtained for all guest visitation.
- This policy does not apply in the Village Houses and Village Apartments.
- Hover boards
Hover boards, self-balancing scooters, battery powered two-wheeled scooters, and other similar devices may not be used, possessed, charged or stored in any University Owned housing facilities.
- Key and Student I.D. Responsibility
Students are responsible for all assigned keys. Students may not allow another person use of any key or ID that allows entrance to a residence or residence facility. If a student is locked out of their residence they may check out a temporary key from the front desk. Village residents who are locked out should contact the Village Duty phone. Failure to return the temporary key within 72 hours will result in an automatic lock change. A lost key will result in an automatic lock change. Residents will be billed for lock changes.
- Lounges/Lobby Usage
When using lounges and lobbies all residents and their guest must adhere to the following:
- The lobby atmosphere should be conducive to small-scale social interactions for residents and their guests.
- The lobby may be the meeting place for hall activities during specified times of the day.
- Courtesy and Quiet hours are enforced.
- No loitering is allowed in the main lobby area. This also pertains to inside and outside of the entrance ways and main desk foyer areas.
- The visitation and escort policies apply.
- University staff members (including student staff) have the authority to dismiss persons from the lobby.
Motorcycles must be registered with Parking Services and follow their regulations. Motorcycles, mopeds, motor scooters and other internal combustion engines are not permitted in University Owned Housing or common areas.
- Open Flames
Possession and/or use of candles, incense, fireworks (including sparklers), or other open flame apparatus is prohibited within university-operated housing. Supervised candles and incense are permitted in the Village Houses and Village Apartments. Grills (outside of the George Forman type) are only permitted outside the Village houses.
- Pet Possession
Students and guests may not possess an animal other than fish and properly attended assistance animals for individuals with disabilities that have been registered through the Office of Disability Services. Aquariums are to be limited to 10 gallons or less.
Residents of the Village houses have the ability to have specific pets. Approval for all animals must be received from the Area Coordinator for Graduate and Family Housing and the Village pet policy must be followed. Pets are not allowed in the Village apartments.
- Power Strips
Students may not use multiple-outlet connections unless they are a power strip with a built-in circuit breaker that is clearly marked, carries an Underwriter’s Laboratory (U.L.) approval, has a maximum load of 15 amps and is plugged directly into a wall electrical outlet. Plug-mounted surge protectors are allowed, but must meet the same requirements as power strips. Extension cords must be heavy duty (no less than 12 gauge) extension cords and used properly.
Flyers, announcements or other printed or written material to be posted in and around University owned housing or common areas must be submitted to the Department of Residence Life minimally one week prior to the posting date for approval and distribution.
- Quiet Hours
Students and guests must adhere to minimum mandatory quiet hours in and around residence halls. Quiet hours are 10:00 pm – 8:00 am, seven days a week.
- Quiet Hours for Finals
Students and guests must adhere to 24 hour quiet hours beginning each semester at 9:00 pm the last day of normally scheduled classes and ending after the completion of the final University exam period. Students and guests who violate this policy may be immediately removed from University housing.
- Removal of University Property
Residence Life has designated a location for all university property in and around university owned housing and common areas. Property may not be moved from its designated position without prior approval from the appropriate GHD or Area Coordinator.
- Syringe Disposal
Residents and guests may only have syringes for medically prescribed usage. They may not place exposed hypodermic needles directly in trash containers; SHARPS containers may be obtained from Occupational Safety. Used needles should be disposed of in a puncture proof container. If no container is available used needles should be taken to the Student Health Center.
The appropriate trash receptacles (dumpsters) provided outside should be utilized for the disposal of all trash. Room trash cannot be disposed of in the residence hall trash cans located in kitchens, laundry facilities, or common lounge space.
Heating and air conditioning vents, registers as well as return vents such as those in doors are to be left uncovered. If a student needs a vent to be dampened or adjusted they should put in a work order for maintenance to make the appropriate adjustments.
A screen may not be removed from its window casing. If the screen is missing from a window, students may not use the window for egress or to hang or display items. The plane of the window may not be broken.